Structure of a kidney

Structure of a kidney - 1 pair kidney is present in the abdominal cavity on the dorsal side or on the lateral side of the last thoracic and first three lumbar vertebrae and the last two pairs floating ribs keep it well protected. However, In humans, the right kidney is present on the slightly posterior side as the liver is present over it. In contrast, Hilus is a slight depression on the sides of the kidney through which blood and nerve supply maintain. Kidneys are retroperitoneal organs. As their most part is not under peritoneum cover.




Structure of a Kidney






Renal Capsule covers the kidneys. The internal structure of a kidney- Kidney divides into an outer cortex and an inner medulla. The medulla is in the form of renal pyramids. Almost 12 to 16 renal pyramids are present in each and the pyramids have their base towards the cortex. The cortex in the form of the renal column of Bertini which fills the gap between the successive renal pyramids. Renal Pelvis is a larger space on the inner side, from where ureter arises which opens into the urinary bladder.


Urinary Bladder Anatomy


Urinary Bladder Anatomy




The urinary bladder has smooth muscles inside called Detrussor Muscles. The urinary bladder has three openings. Amongst them, there are two openings for the ureters and one for the urethra.  The sphincter or valves guard the openings. Urethra arises from the urinary bladder which opens over the body surface. Transitional epithelium is present on the inner side of the urinary bladder and in the ureter. Trigone is a triangular shape between the three openings in the urinary bladder.

Know more about the anatomy of Urinary Bladder-Trigone is highly sensitive. Therefore, It stimulates when the urinary bladder fills with urine. Urinary bladder has receptors these are highly sensitive when more urine fills in the urinary bladder, more than 500 ml, information by the sensory nerve is sent to the hypothalamus part of CNS. Which the motor nerve then obeys and this leads to the contraction of urinary bladder muscles. Simultaneously urethral sphincter relax and urine passes out from the body. This whole process is known as the Micturition reflex. Whereas micturition is the process of passage of urine.


Additional Information about Structure of a Kidney

  • About 1 - 1.5-liter urine and 25 - 30-gram urea passes out per day.
  • Uriniferous Tubules or Nephrons are the structural or functional units of the Kidney.
  • Nephrology is the study of structure, functions, and disorders of kidneys.
  • Urology is the study of the urogenital system in the male and urinary tract in the female.
  • Compensatory hypertrophy is the enlargement of one kidney to compensate for the function of another damage kidney.
  • Ptosis is the displacement of the kidney from the normal location.
  • Pelvis on peripheral divides into small chambers called the minor calyx. Whereas One or more minor calyx unites forming major calyx which opens into the inner part of renal sinus.
  • The male urethra is the common passage for both the urine and the gametes, so together it is known as the urogenital system. Whereas in the female, urinary and genital openings are separate.

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