Structure of Heart

The heart is mesodermal in origin. It forms by the modification of arteries. The Structure of Heart- The heart is a muscular organ made up of cardiac muscle present in the thoracic cavity between two lungs in media-stanial space in the center but slightly tilts towards the left (left ventricle). It pumps blood to circulate throughout the body. The structure of the heart first includes- the wall of the heart which has three layers (Epicardium, Myocardium, Endocardium) collectively called Pericardium. The pericardium surrounds the Heart and fills with pericardial fluid.



The Structure of heart - Internal Structure

Structure of Atriums of the Human Heart

Atriums are slightly thinner and smaller than ventricles because low-pressure generates in atriums than ventricles. Right Atrium has three openings and the left Atrium has one large opening of Superior Vena cava. The Haversian valve guards the Superior Vena Cava and the Eustachian valve guards the Inferior Vena cava.

Note -

Musculi Pectinate - Sometimes there are ridges like structures in the wall of the Atrium. But Generally, the wall of the Atrium is smooth.

Note -

During embryonic development, lungs are nonfunctional and oxygenation takes place in the Placenta of the mother so the blood of the right Atrium cannot go to the left Atrium directly by the eustachian valve. Foramen ovalis- is an aperture in inter arterial septum which is for the passage of blood. Through this aperture blood passes and after birth, within 3 months it closes, then it is called fossa ovalis.
The atrium is also separate from ventricles of their side by Atrio -Ventricular septum which comprises of thick fibrous tissues.

The atrium opens into the ventricles of their side through Atrio-Ventricular aperture. Tricuspid valves are the 3 cusps like structures that guard the right opening and the bicuspid valves are the 2 cusps which guard the opening on the left side. Tricuspid valves and bicuspid valves are muscular or membranous flaps.

Structure of Ventricles of the Human Heart

Next in the Structure of Heart comes the Ventricles. The thickness of the wall of the left ventricle is more than the right ventricle. This is because more pressure generates in the left ventricle because it supplies blood to the whole body.

Moderator Band

These are fibrous bands present from IVS up to walls of the right ventricle. Long papilla-like muscles arise from ventricles of the heart. Chordae tendinae - the thin fiber structures connect to the cuspid valves of their side. Mamillary muscles and chordae tendinae helps in the closing of cuspid valves.

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